(The figures in brackets after each name give the population in 1901 and those at the end of each section are references to the pages in the text.)

Annesley (1271),six and a half miles S.W. of Mansfield, on the borders of Sherwood Forest. Annesley Hall is a fine example of a country mansion. It was the birthplace and home of Mary Chaworth, who was immortalised by the poet Byron. It is now the seat of the Musters family.

Arnold (8757), four miles N.E. of Nottingham, is a busy centre for the manufacture of lace and hosiery. Brewing and soap-making are also carried on. It is the birthplace of Richard Parkes Bonington, one of England’s greatest painters. The Early English portion of the fine parish church was built in 1270.Cockpit Hill, on which are the remains of a Roman encampment, is close by.

Aslockton (372),on the Smite, is three miles east of Bingham. Archbishop Cranmer was born here in 1489, and here he received his early education in learning and manly sports. “Cranmer’s Mound” is really a part of some ancient earth-works and consists of two rectangular courts surrounded by a foss. The latter is now nearly filled up and the shape of the mound spoilt by the removal of material for ballast.

Beaumond Cross, Newark.
Beaumond Cross, Newark.

Attenborough (1176), lying five miles S.W. of Nottingham, was the birthplace of General Henry Ireton (1611) son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell and Lord Deputy of Ireland. His brother John became Lord Mayor of London 1658. The population includes Chilwell.

Balderton (2203), near the Witham, and two miles S.E. of Newark, has some large engineering works. The church contains some good examples of Norman work, especially in the porch.

Basford (27,119) Is an important centre for the hosiery industry. It was incorporated in the borough of Nottingham in 1877. It was the residence of Philip James Bailey and the birthplace of Marshall Hall, and is head of a Union.

Beauvale, in Greasley parish, seven miles N.W. of Nottingham, is the site of a Carthusian monastery which was founded here in the reign of Edward III. The site is now occupied by a farmstead where portions of the old buildings may still be seen.

Beeston (8960), lies near the Trent three miles S.W. of Nottingham. The population increased from 6948 between the last two censuses. The older parts were situated upon a terrace of ancient river gravels and thus stood above the flood level. Owing to the improvement of the river’s channel and to better drainage the great expanse of alluvium between it and the Trent is being rapidly covered with buildings and factories. The Midland Railway has sidings for the coal brought down from the Leen Valley Collieries. Other industries are lace and telephone making, malting, and foundry work.

Bestwood Park (650), once part of Sherwood Forest, belongs to the Duke of St Albans. Bestwood Lodge was built about 1858 in the fifteenth century style. In the district there are a modern colliery, blast furnaces, and one of the Nottingham Corporation pumping stations.

Bingham (1604). A market town near the Fosseway, ten miles east of Nottingham, which depended for some of its prosperity upon the fact that it is situated near the centre of the fertile corn-growing Vale of Belvoir. It gave its name to one of the ancient wapentakes. Moot House Pit was probably the place of meeting. The Rt Hon. Robert Lowe, Chancellor of the Exchequer and afterwards Viscount Sherbrooke, was born here, his father being rector of the parish. It is a Union town, head of a Petty Sessional division and County Court district.

Blyth (571), six miles N.E. of Worksop, on the Ryton. It was one of the five places in the kingdom licensed ,to hold tournaments. A Benedictine monastery was founded here in 1088. During the Middle Ages this was an important place for the entertainment of travellers along the North Road. For this reason the road was probably diverted from its more direct course so that it might pass through Blyth. The monastery and time choir and tower of the church were long ago destroyed. The portions which now remain are some of the earliest Norman work in the county. Blyth was formerly an important market town but the market was removed some years ago to Bawtry.

East Bridgford (756), a village on the Trent, nine miles N.E. of Nottingham, close to which is the site of the Roman station Margidunum, which was situated on the Fosseway. Here the road comes close to the Trent for the first time on its way from the south-west. From it a short road, now known as Bridgford Street, runs down to the river. Goods were probably shipped here and sent down the river to York or Boston.

A beautiful kind of gypsum, called satin spar because of its lustre, was at one time found here in layers six inches thick, and was used for making ornaments, beads, etc.

The Southern Boundary of Old Sherwood Forest.
The Southern Boundary of Old Sherwood Forest.

West Bridgford (7018). A parish two miles south of Nottingham which shows considerable rate of increase of population during the nineteenth century. Moreover, for the period 1897—1906the average gross death-rate for the district was only 8.29 perthousand, which is much lower than for any other district in Nottinghamshire.

Brough. A tiny hamlet on the Fosseway, one mile east of Langford. Here, perhaps, was situated the Roman station Crococolanum mentioned by Antoninus in his Itineraries. Numerous coins, fragments of pottery and implements, and foundations of houses have been found over an area of forty acres. Probably it was not merely a resting stage for soldiers but a settlement of some importance.

Bulwell (14,767) was incorporated inthe borough of Nottingham in 1877.Bulwell Forest is a remnant of the old forest waste which is now used as a public recreation ground. The usual manufacturing industries of the district are carried on here. The stone from extensive quarries in the Magnesian Limestone ismuch used for making burnt lime and forbuilding walls. Equally extensive pits in the Permian marl supply clay forbricks, tiles, and flower-pots. Moulding sand is obtained in large quantities from the Bunter. The localisation of these industries here is largely due to the proximity of the railways. There are also coal-pits.

Calverton (1159) in South Notts, six and a half miles N.E. of Nottingham, is claimed to be the birthplace of William Lee, inventor of the stocking machine. Hosiery is still made here, but not in such large quantities as formerly. Traces of Saxon or Early Norman work exist in the church. In Foxwood, half-a-mile south of the village, are some earthworks which formed a stronghold in easy communication with a number of minor encampments in the surrounding district.

Clipstone, on the Maun, three miles N.E. of Mansfield, is the site of a castle often used by royal hunting parties during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It was so frequently occupied by King John that even now the ruins bear the name “King John’s Palace.”

Clumber. The seat of the Duke of Newcastle, three miles S.E. of Worksop, with a park 11 miles in circumference. The mansion was erected about 1772,and in 1879 itwas partially destroyed by fire.

Eastwood (4815), nine miles N.W. of Nottingham. It was here that the colliery owners met in 1832 to consult about the loss of the Leicester market for the sale of their coal, which was due to a railway made to that town from the Leicestershire coalfield. It was thereupon decided to lay down a line also from the Erewash Valley coalfield. Though it was many years before the line was made this meeting was the germ whence the great Midland Railway ultimately grew.

This parish showed the greatest percentage increase, viz. 63.50 per cent., in population per square mile in this county during the nineteenth century. This was associated with the growth of the collieries. Eastwood is situated in the rainiest part of the county on its extreme western border.

Edwinstowe (904), a township seven miles N.E. of Mansfield, named after Edwin, King of Northumbria, who was slain in the battle on the Idle, A.D.633. It is a favourite centre from which to visit the Dukeries.

Gotham (1009),lying seven miles S.W. of Nottingham, is a name made familiar to many by the stories of “The Wise Men of Gotham.” It is a centre for gypsum mining and plaster making.

Gringley on the Hill (720) lies six miles E.S.E. of Bawtry. The top of Beacon Hill is the finest view-point in the county. The outlook embraces Lincoln Cliff, the Carr lands as far as the Ouse, and the country west of the Magnesian Limestone escarpment. Here are earthworks believed to date back to Roman or British times. Prince Rupert encamped here before going to the relief of Newark in 1644.

Hucknall Torkard (15,250). A prosperous town on time Leen seven miles N.W. of Nottingham. Many of the men are engaged in the mines on the neighbouring estates of Annesley, Newstead, and Bestwood. Laundry work, cigar-making, and hosiery-manufacturing are carried on here. The making of hosiery shawls is an old industry. Lord Byron was buried in time chancel of the parish church.

Kimberley (5129), five miles north of Nottingham, is a busy place, with brewing, mining, and knitting industries. The railway cuttings here are very instructive as they show the Permian rocks resting on the coal measures.

Kingston-upon-Soar (271), ten miles S.W. of Nottingham, is the centre of an important dairying district. In 1900the agricultural department of University College, Nottinghamn, was removed here and formed with the existing Dairy College “The Midland Agricultural and Dairy College.” Various general and special courses are arranged to meet the requirements of different types of students. In addition much is done by consultations, analyses, and a travelling Dairy School to advance these industries in the co-operating counties.

Laxton (or Lexington) (394), is a village lying three and a half miles S.S.W. of Tuxford. Half-a-mile to the north are the largest and best preserved earthworks in the county. They consist of a mount and two courts and baileys. The mount is capped with a tumulus and surrounded by a foss. The courts are also bounded by a foss.

Lenton (14,662), was included in the borough of Nottingham in 1877. Formerly a great priory of the Cluniacs existed here, but only traces of the building remain. A beautiful Norman font is still preserved in the parish church.

Littleborough (49), now an insignificant place, is situated six miles east of East Retford, at the point where the Roman Road, Till BridgeLane, crossed the Trent. Remains of the pavement still exist in the floor of the river, and other Roman relics have been found. This is probably the Segelocum or Agelocum of the Itineraries of Antoninus. The church here is Norman in style with Early English additions, and is one of the smallest in the county.

Mansfield (21,445) is named after time river Maun upon which it stands. It was probably a Roman station situated at the point where the old road which ran north of Southwell crossed Leeming Lane. During the Middle Ages it was often the resort of royal hunting parties. At a later time quarries of excellent building stone were opened in the neighbourhood. To the east lay extensive areas of corn- and barley-growing country. On the west was the Erewash Valley coalfield. These influences helped to make it an important market town at an early date. Before railways were introduced a horse-tram ran to Pinxton and was connected with the Cromford and the Erewash Valley canals. These brought coal and cotton and carried back stone, lime, and corn. It is now almost surrounded by collieries, and is a busy manufacturing centre for hosiery and boots, lace-thread spinning, and cigar-making. It is the head of a Poor Law Union, and a Petty Sessional Division. In 1891 it became a municipal borough.

Mansfield Woodhouse (4877) is one and a half miles north of Mansfield. Remains of a Roman villa have been found here. In the immediate neighbourhood are numerous stone quarries.

Misterton (1433), a village on the Chesterfield canal five miles N.W. of Gainsborough. There are chemical and copper-precipitating works here. Close by is Misterton Soss, where the pumping station for the Morther drain is situated.

Netherfield is three miles E. of Nottingham. Here the Great Northern Railway has very extensive sidings where ironstone from Leicestershire and coal from the York, Derby, and Nottingham coalfields are dealt with.

Old Grammar School, Newark.
Old Grammar School, Newark.

Newark (14,992) after its destruction by time Danes about 1041 was rebuilt, hence the name New werke. It stands on the Devon, which here has the appearance of being a loop of the Trent, and is situated at the point where the natural route from London down the valley of the Witham to the  north crosses the Fosseway and the Trent. Here Bishop Alexander built a castle in the twelfth century which was further strengthened in the thirteenth. These factors helped to make it a position of great strategic importance during the civil wars, when it resisted several vigorous sieges. In the coaching days its position on the Great North Road led to its becoming a famous post-town. The coming of the main line of the Great Northern Railway and the Nottingham-to-Lincoln branch of the Midland Railway added considerably to its advantages, while the Trent is also a great aid to its trade. It possesses works for the manufacture of machinery, agricultural implements, artificial manures, and flour, while malting and brewing are carried on extensively. Much gypsum is mined and limestone quarried in the district. As a market town it stands second only to Nottingham. The castle ruins, parish church, and a number of old half-timbered houses make it well worth a visit. It is a municipal borough, incorporated under Edward VI, and has had a mayor since 1625. Itis head of a Poor Law Union and Petty Sessional Division.

Newstead (1100) is five miles south of Mansfield. Newstead Abbey was founded by Henry II, it is said, as an act of penance for the murder of Becket, and was occupied by the Austin Canons. At the Dissolution it passed to the Byron family and thus became associated with the poet. Under the last two representatives of that famous line it fell into almost hopeless disrepair. In 1818 it was purchased by Colonel Wildman, who carefully preserved what remained of the old part and added enough to make it a charming residence.

Nottingham (239,743). Situated on the Trent, and time capital of the county. Entered by the Danes in 868 it became one of the Five Danish Boroughs. Its castle was built by William I in 1068. It received charters from various kings beginning with John, and became a county in itself in 1448. As a Parliamentary borough it returns three members. It is a great manufacturing and distributing centre, especially noted for lace, and also to a less extent for hosiery. Many other industries are carrmed on, such as cotton-spinning, machine-building, brassfounding, colour-printing, tobacco-making, tanning, brewing, and blouse-making. The Corporation carries on the gas-making, waterworks, electric lighting, and trams. In addition to the usual public buildings it possesses Museums of Art and Natural History, and University College.

Ollerton (690), on the Maun, nine miles N.E. of Mansfield, near the northern border of Sherwood Forest, is a convenient centre from which to visit the Dukeries. Close by are the “Birklands,” so called on account of the great number of birches. There are also two famous oaks here, the Major Oak and Robin Hood’s Larder.

Oxton (455), a village five miles S.W. of Southwell, interesting as having in its proximnity some of the best preserved earthworks in the county. Those known as Oldox have multiple ramparts and seem to be of Celtic origin. West of this is a rectangular encampment, also several mounds, of which one was certainly a tumulus. Recently a boring was made near here which struck workable coal at a depth of over 2000 feet.

Radford (43,933). A busy manufacturing centre incorporated in the borough of Nottingham 1877.

Retford or East Retford (12,340). On the Idle, seven miles east of Worksop. As a borough it comes next in antiquity to Nottingham, and is said to have been incorporated by Richard I. It had the privilege of sending representatives to Parliament as early as 1315. After fifteen years had elapsed this privilege was not again used until 1571. It now belongs to the Bassetlaw division. It is head of a Poor Law Union and Petty Sessional Division. It is on the Great Northern main line and was formerly a post-town on the Great North Road. It has iron foundries, paper-mills, and india-rubber works, and is still an important market town.

Scrooby (181). Now a quiet village on the winding Ryton two miles souith of Bawtry. At one time there was a great palace here, the seat of the archbishops of York. Later the place became an important post-town on the Great North Road. William Brewster, who was postmaster, lived in the remains of the palace. He was the leader of the Pilgrim Fathers who, unable to gain religious liberty in England, left for Holland in 1607. From thence they sailed in time Mayflower in 1620 and founded a settlement in Virginia, which province was then under the Governorship of Sir Edwin Sandys, a brother of the owner of Scrooby.

Selston (7071). A colliery town seven miles S.W. of Mansfield. It seems to have been the first place at which coal was worked in this county. In the fifteenth century the monks of Beauvale had a coal-mine here.

Church and Village of Shelford.
Church and Village of Shelford.

Shelford (386) is six miles E.N.E. of Nottingham and is a good example of a village built upon a gravel patch. In the illustration here given time foreground is occupied by the low-lying alluvium. At time back the church, cemetery, and village can be seen standing at a higher level.

Sneinton or Snenton (23,093). Incorporated in the borough of Nottingham 1877. At one time there were a number of cave dwellings here.

Southwell (3161). On the Greet. A historic little place which owes its importance almost entirely to the presence of the splendid cathedral and the consequent procession of ecclesiastics and their trains. It was made the seat of a bishopric in the sixteenth century but lack of funds caused this to be abolished. In 1884 it was reestablished and made the head of the diocese of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. The Saracen’s Head Inn is noted for its associations with Charles I. At one time Southwell was a busy market town, but in common with several other places the market has practically disappeared because of the facilities of access to such places as Newark and Nottingham, and easy delivery of goods from these towns by van as well as rail. It is head of a Poor Law Union and Petty Sessional Division.

Stapleford (5766), six miles west of Nottingham, has not only the Hemlock Stone, but its cross is time oldest Christian memorial in the county, believed to date from A.D. 680 to 780. It is marked with wonderfully intricate scroll-work decoration.

Stoke or East Stoke, on the Trent four miles S.W. of Newark, is noteworthy as the scene of the battle between the forces of Henry VII and the impostor Lambert Sinmnel.

Sutton-in-Ashfield (14,862), three miles S.W. of Mansfield, is primarily a colliery town. Hosiery manufacturing has advanced rapidly, and there are important stock fairs. Many persons also find employmuent in connection with time railway.

Thoresby, near Ollerton. The seat of Earl Manvers. The original mansion, in which Lady Mary Wortley Montagu was born, was destroyed by fire in 1745. The present building of Steetley stone is Elizabethan in style.

Thurgarton, three miles south of Southwell, was formerly the site of an Augustinian priory. The parish church was the church of the priory founded in 1130.

Tuxford (1283). Formerly a post-town on the Great North Road; seven miles south of Retford, and until recently a market town of some importance in a rich agricultural district. Now only the cattle-market is held, the general market having succumbed to the facilities of railways and vans. The town is on the Great Northern main line, which is here crossed by a branch of the Great Central Railway.

Welbeck (97). Welbeck Abbey, near Worksop, is the seat of the Duke of Portland. It is built on the site of a Praemonstratensian abbey, only fragments of which remain. Close by is the romantic gorge known as Creswell Crags.

West Stockwith (667). A small river port situated in the extreme north of the county at the point where the Idle, the Morther drain, and the Chesterfield canal enter the Trent. Large chemical and engineering works provide many of the people with employment.

Willoughby-on-the-Wolds (398), some seven miles E.N.E. of Loughborough, is the original home of the Willoughby family. Close to this village, but on the Fosseway, was the Roman station Vernometum or Verometum. A battle was fought here during the civil wars in 1648.

The Park, Wollaton Hall.
The Park, Wollaton Hall.

Wollaton (541), three miles west of Nottingham, is chiefly noteworthy for Wollaton Hall, the country seat of Lord Middleton. It was built by John of Padua from 1580-88 at a cost of some £80,000 and is a magnificent example of an Elizabethan mansion. Ancaster oolite was used and was obtained in exchange for coal.

Worksop (16,112). Here was once an Augustinian priory which is now in ruins. The beautiful Norman church, however, remains, and is one of the finest in the county. There was also a famous manor house. Around these the town grew up and is still a busy market town. Malting, timber-sawing and woodwork, especially the making of Windsor chairs, are the chief industries. It is head of a Poor Law Union and Petty Sessional Division. Worksop Manor, which formerly belonged to the Dukes of Norfolk, is now the property of Sir John Robinson.