Chapter V.

The Living

The Tithes of the Rectory of the Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield having been appropriated to the Priory of Thurgarton by Gerard de Sutton in a.d. 1189 there is no record to be found of their amount. In the Hundred Rolls P.R.O. of a.d. 1279 it is stated "The Manor of Mansfield being of the ancient demesne of the Crown in the hand of King Edward . . . . except the Church of Sutton sup. Essefeld in which town the Prior of Thurgarton holds from ancient time rendering two pounds to the Dean of Lincoln. The said Prior holds one Bovate of land in Sutton sup Essefeld of the gift of Eve de Sutton for her sustenance during her life." Again in the Testa de Neville of c. 1327 it states that the Church of Sutton appropriated to the Monastery of Thurgarton pays £10.

In the Nona Rolls of 1341 the Commissioners reported that the Parliament at Westminster had made a Grant of a Subsidy of the IX and XV and the 9th Lamb, 9th Fleece, and 9tb Sheaf, and of Cities and Boroughs the very 9th part of their Goods and Chattels. Amongst the Nottinghamshire Parishes mentioned is Sutton super Asshefelde taxed at 15 marks (£10) and of the ninth of the Glebe 10 marks 2/- and 6d. and no more. And of the 40 acres of land belonging to the Church per ann xiiijs iiijd. And a tenement of the same vjs viijd. And of fees xxxvijs vjd. All the taxes from the Clergy both to Popes & Kings were made on the Valuation of a.d. 1291 until 1534 when a new Valuation was made, the Survey being regulated by the Ministers of Henry VIII. The first fruits and tenths were no longer sent to Rome but were transferred to the Crown. These continued to be paid till 1703 when Queen Anne appropriated them to the relief of poor Clergy, having been known ever since as Queen Anne's Bounty. In the new Survey of 1534 known as the Valor Ecclesiasticus, or King's Book, under the heading of Thurgarton it states that "The Prior of Thurgarton has a pension from the Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield of xxvis viijd. The Church is valued in profits from the glebe land, the mansion xxs in tenths of pasture of oblations and other emoluments, xiiij1 in all xv1. An annuity to the Archbishop of York for sinodals, the Archdeacon of Nottinghamshire per ann. vijs vjd the Dean of Lincoln and his successors xxvijs viijd. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in a.d. 1538 everything was seized by the Commissioners, an action rightly termed the 'Great Pillage.' But the xiv pounds was left as an Income for the Parson, all the rest was sold to some speculators or Agents Messrs. Tipper and Dawe who seem to have been acting for James Hardwick of Hardwick Hall, brother of Elizabeth Cavendish (her husband being one of the Commissioners) who afterwards succeeded to them probably by purchase from her brother. Bartholemew Garroway acting no doubt as Attorney for James Hardwick. Today (1932) this £14 is all that the Vicar of Sutton receives from its ancient endowment.

In the Patent Rolls, 5 Philip and Mary (1558) it states that the Advowson of the Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield was granted to Nicholas Archbishop of York 31 October. In the Calendar for Particulars of Grants I Eliz. (1558) it states that the Farm of the Rectory of Sutton-in-Ashfield late of the Priory of Thurgarton was Rated for James Hardwick, being granted to Bartholemew Garroway.

In the Public Record Office the following appears a.d. 1560 "For James Hardwick concerning a grant to him and his heirs. The Queen to all whom . . . . Greeting Know ye that for a sum of £510 15s. Od. paid to us by James Hardewyke of Hardewyke in the Co. of Derby, Esq.: of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion have given and granted and by these Presents do give and grant to him . . . .  And also all that the Rectory and Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield with its rights members and appurtenances in Co. Notts. And all that the Mansion where the Chaplain of the same now dwells. And all that garden to the same mansion adjacent now or late in the tenure of Roger Moteram and Richard Moteram the younger . . . . and formerly being late parcel of the late Priory of Thurgarton now dissolved. And also all and singular messuages, mills, houses, buildings, barns, stables, dovecots, lofts, cottages, orchards, gardens, ponds, vivaries . . . . emoluments and hereditaments as well spiritual as temporal, as well predial as personal . . . .  situate lying and being in the villfield parish or hamlet of (int. al.) Sutton-in-Ashfield . . . . And which same Rectory of Sutton-in-Ashfield with its appurtenances now is extended to the clear yearly value of £l8s. 6d. Except nevertheless . . . . outside this present grant to us our heirs and successors all bells (campanis) and all lead of and upon the premises . . . . beside the lead in the guthers for the windows of the premises. Except also all advowsons incumbent on the aforesaid rectory (of Cokefield and) of Sutton-in-Ashfield. To have hold and enjoy the aforesaid Rectories . . . . to the only use and behoof of the same James Hardwick And to hold the aforesaid Rectory of and Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield of us and our heirs and successors as of our manor of E. Greenwich by fealty only. And futher concerning the £4 13s. 2d. issuing from the aforesaid Rectory of Sutton-in-Ashfield for the wages of one priest to be paid yearly to the Serjeant of the Court there. And further concerning the 26/8 issuing from the . . . . Rectory of Sutton-in-Ashfield for an annual pension to the Dean of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln. And further concerning the 4/- for the synodals to the Archbishop of York and 7/6 for procurations to the Archdeacon of Nottingham.

Witness the Queen at Westminster 10 December By Writ of Privy Seal. Pat. Rolls 955. Part 8."

The Grant to Messrs. William Tipper and Robert Dawe of London by the Queen appears to have been made to them for purchasing lands (as Agents), of the dissolved Monasteries, it is as follows : Grant . . etc. . . of our parcel of land called Goose Grene lying next Charlton and Sutton or either of them in Co. of Nottingham. And all our lands etc., etc. in the vill, parish, hamlet or fields of Mansfield, M. Woodhouse, Skegby and Sutton-in-Ashfield . . . . heretofore limited and appointed to maintain an obit or anniversary, or for the upkeep of a priest or chaplain to celebrate mass, and other superstitious uses in M., M.W., S. & Sutton-in-Ashfield aforesaid or any of the same for ever. And also all those our parcels of land called or known by the name of le Fryers situate lying and being in Skegby and Sutton-in-Ashfield . . . .  to be held of us our heirs and successors as of our manor of E. Greenwich . . . . And for all these . . . . 4/-. And for . . . . Le Friers 8d. Witness the Queen, etc. 30 March, 1592. Pat Roll 1382. Part 4.

This latter Grant clearly applies to the endowment of a Chantry at Sutton-in-Ashfield but of which, so far, no account has appeared.

With further reference to the Sutton Rectory the following is a Copy of a Deed in Welbeck Abbey discovered by the late R. W. Goulding, Esq., and which by permission of His Grace the Duke of Portland is now allowed to appear. Manor of Sutton-in-Ashfield, Rectory. Indenture of a Bargain and Sale 19 February 25 Elizabeth (1583) Between Walter Culpeper of Hanboroughe in the Countie of Oxenforde esquier and Mary Culpeper his wiefe sometime the wiefe of ffrancis Holbrooke of London esquier deceased and Jeffrey Welshe of the Isle of Sheppey in the countie of Kent gentlemen of thone partie And the Right honourable Syr Thomas Bromley knight Lorde Chanceler of England and Thomas ffanshawe of Ware in Co. Hartford esquier on thother partie. Recites that "James Hardwike of Hardwick Co. Derby esquier by Indenture 20 January 16 Eliz. (1574) sold to ffrancis Holbroke and his heirs All that the Recto rye and Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield in the countie of Nottm. parcell of the late dissolved Monastery of Thurgarton in the said Countie. That the said ffrancis Holbroke by his last Will dated 28 February, 1580 appointed the said Mary then his wief and the said Jeffrey Welshe his executors, authorising them to sell the said Rectory and Church. Now the said Walter Culpeper, Mary Culpeper and Jeffrey Welshe for and in consideration of a certain sum of money to them paid have bargained and sold the said Rectorye and Church to the said Syr Thomas Bromley and Thomas ffanshawe." (The Indenture is signed by Walter and Mary). At this time (1583) the Manor had passed into the possession of Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury by a Recovery made by Nicholas Hardwick and Richard Eckyngfield from James Hardwick her (the Countess's) brother, and through her the Advowson and Rectory passed into the possessions of her son Earl and afterwards Duke of Devonshire.

The next great upheaval was in the unhappy time of the Stuart dynasty and the Commonwealth of the Puritans under Oliver Cromwell. The Board of Tryers and the Committee on (so called) Scandalous Ministers were appointed 1646 visited all Churches and ejected many thousands (authorities vary from 5,000 to 8,000) of loyal Clergy, and another Committee for the Approbation of Publique Preachers filled the Vacant Livings by appointing Independent, Baptist and Presbyterian Preachers in the Livings. In the Survey of Church Lands, Vol. 13 a.d. 1649 Lambeth Palace Library is the following:—

An Inquisition indented at the Shire Hall Nottingham 14 August, 1550 (1650!) before John Hutchinson, Nicholas Charlton, John Martin and others by virtue of a Commission from the keepers of the liberties of England by Authority of Parliament under the Great Seale of England to them and theirs directed and to this Inquisition by the Oathes of Thomas Newton, Nathan Newton, Nicholas Strey, Jeffrey Brook, and John Landford, gent, (and others) good and lawful men of the same countie who being sworn and charged . . . .  say upon their Oaths as followeth, videlicet that in the Wapentake of Broxtowe in the said Countie there is the Impropriate Rectory of Mansfield . . . . And the Impropriate Rectory of Sutton-in-Ashfield "is worth Four Score and Ten Pounds p. ann. and the Earle of Devonshire being Impropriator thereof doth receive the profit of the same to his own use. The Vicaridge of Sutton worth £4 13s. 4d. p. ann. Nicholas Hasard, Clerke, being now Vicar hath the profits of the said Vicaridge for his sallary and is a preaching Minister (i.e. he was a Puritan) And we conceive that Skegby may well be united to Sutton in respect it is very neare and hath not a competent maintenance for a Minister."

After the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 Parliament passed an Act ordering that all holders of Livings in the Church of England must accept Ordination by a Bishop, an Act now remembered as the Act of Uniformity. Dr. Calamy a Nonconformist historian states that at Sutton Church Lemuel Tuke, an old blind man of Congregational persuasion was Vicar. It is to the credit of many of the 5,000 Baptists, Congregationalists and Presbyterians who had obtained the Livings that they resigned rather than accept Episcopal Ordination. Dr. Calamy puts the number at about 2,000 but Dr. Littledale (Times 5 October, 1886) states that if Dr. Calamy's figures for the whole country are as accurate as those for London, the number should be 867, and it seems clear that many thousands accepted Ordination and kept the Livings. There is no direct evidence that Lemuel Tuke was Vicar and no note of what became of Nicholas Hasard. The Committee for the Approbation of Publique Preachers on 16 July, 1658 ordered that the Yearly Sum of Twenty Pounds bee granted to and for increase of the maintenance of the Minister of Sutton-in-Ashfield his highness and Counsell having approved thereof, and that the same be from time to time paid unto Mr. Lemuell Tuke Minister of Sutton aforesaid approved by the Commissioners for the Approbation of Publique Preachers. To hold for such time as hee shall continue Minister there, or further ordered of these Trustees. A few days later, however, the same Committee ordered that the yearly sum of Twenty Pounds for increase of maintenance to the Minister of Sutton-in-Ashfield, Co. Notts. And the same be from time to time paid unto such godly and able preachers of the Gospel as shallbe from time to time seem firmly settled Minister there, and approved by the Commissioners, to hold for such time as they shall continue Minister there. Which we humbly certify to his Highness the Lord Protector. Lemuel Tuke had been instituted Vicar of Greasley 8 October, 1624 and on leaving there owing to his blindness came to live at Sutton. According to Calamy he must have changed his views, as having been Ordained he had no cause to be ejected. It is most probable to conclude that the Grant was made to Tuke on account of his blindness, his views and his poverty, as the Commissioners learning a few days after their first meeting that Tuke was not Minister made the additional Grant to Jacobus Haynes who was. In the Will of Ann Mason whose maiden name was Langford made 1 November, 1659, she left "40/- to Mr. Lemuel Tuke and 20/- to Mr. Haynes for my 'funeral Sarmond'," and as we have positive evidence that Mr. Haynes was Vicar at a later period, and that he was preaching at Sutton in 1659, Mr. Tuke could not have been ejected three years later. The entry in Sutton Parish Registers of Mr. Tuke's burial is as follows: "Lemuel Tuke, presbiter, sepultus fuit decima nona die mensa June Ano Domini 1670."

This incident I cannot close without a word for the many thousands of loyal Clergy who were ejected by the Puritan Board of Tryers, whose names and sufferings are so unaccountably overlooked today in all histories and school books. They never returned to their old homes and many of them being past middle age were reduced to the direst ebb of poverty and distress. Some lived to be reinstated, amongst them being later Bishop Usher, Bishop Juxon, Dean Cosin, Thomas Fuller, etc.

In the Vestry Book appears the following "An Inventory of the Lands Furniture etc. belonging to the Parish Church of Sutton-in-Ashfield in Co. Notts taken 16 June, 1781 by me Thomas Hurt, Curate, To this Curacy there is no house. A Sallary of Thirteen Pounds, six and eightpence p. ann. is paid by the Duke of Devonshire with Four Pounds His Grace's yearly bounty to this Curacy used to be the whole stipend until in or about the year 1775 at which time a purchase was made of some lands in the parish of Edingley, Co. Notts, by mensuration about 22 acres 15 perches for the augmentation of this Living with the sum of £800, £200 of which was given by the Duke of Devonshire, £200 raised by the Parish, £400 received from the Governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, which lands are now let at the yearly rent of about £24 per annum, so that the present stipend is about £41 6s. 8d. Surplice Fees, every Wedding by Licence 5/- for every Churching 1/- for every Wedding by Banns, for publication 1/-, for marrying 2/6 for every Funeral 1/6. Clerks wages Easter dues for every Farm 4d. for every Cottage 2d, Wedding by Licence 2/6, by Banns 1/-, for every Churching 6d, for every Funeral 1/-.

At this period the Vicar resided at the house in Low Street now known as the Brick and Tile Inn, but on the death of Mr. Hurt, his successor the Rev. Wm. Goodacre resided at Green-hill Cot. standing at the junction of Coxmoor and Newark roads.

In 1873 the Income of the Living was made up as follows: A Vicarage house built in 1859 with Garden and Paddock adjoining.

A Farm at Edingley let at £46 per annum. An ancient endowment of £17 6s. 8d. A Grant from Queen Anne's Bounty of £54. A Grant from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners of £160.