I now wish to make a few remarks respecting that old and noted residence once in Gridlesmith Gate, or Pelham Street, which in conversation is and has been termed Thurland Hall, but on all occasions, I believe, is entitled Thurland House in the Records. For many years, before demolition, it belonged to the Duke of Newcastle, and was pulled down in 1831, of which circumstance I have some recollection. In the Borough Records, vol. iv., page 443, is the following :—" Thurland House, ... It was in Thurland Street." This, on explanation will, by all old people, be considered an error, which, in an official work should, if possible, be rectified ; yet I note this without the least inclination to carp or cavil, but solely in the interest of accuracy.

While writing this I have by me an excellent, though undated, plan of Nottingham, but circumstances connected with it undoubtedly enable me to fix the date to about twelve months. On it is shewn Trinity Church, which (see Date Book) was first opened October 13th, 1841, or full ten years after the demolition of Thurland Hall. Then next to it the Mechanics' Hall will be found, which was opened January 28th, 1845 (see Date Book) or full thirteen years after Thurland Hall disappeared, but there is no Albert Street, which was not formed until 1846.

From this it is proved that the plan was published at least thirteen years after Thurland Hall was pulled down ; yet the site and the vacant ground attached to it, reaching from Pelham Street to Lincoln Street, is shewn to be unoccupied, and without the semblance of a street. Steven Glover, in his Directory of Nottingham, dated 1844, says nothing in his list about Thurland Street, nor could he if it were not then formed. The first Directory in which I have yet found a reference to Thurland Street is that of Lascelles and Hagar, which is dated 1848, yet I believe it to have been formed during 1845, or possibly a month or two earlier. Deering tells us that Thurland Hall was "in Gridlesmith Gate" (Pelham Street), and we are also informed by White and Dearden, in their Directories, that it was in Pelham Street. Under such circumstances it will, no doubt, be generally allowed that Thurland Hall never was and could not have been in Thurland Street ; which, being a road only about 50ft. wide, was too narrow to hold Thurland Hall, a residence, according to my unique plan, measuring upwards of 85 feet. See illustration in Orange's History of Nottingham (1840) page 730.

I will now briefly refer to what the " anonymous writer " terms Hencross Street, for, as being exceptionally so named, it is most interesting, and doubtless gives us the oldest appellation applied to the thoroughfare now known as High Street. I have before remarked regarding Hencross Row, that it was on the eastern side of that street where the main portion of the houses were, and that it reached from Gridlesmith Gate (Pelham Street) to Linby Lane (Bottle Lane) without a break, there being no Victoria Street then, and but one opening in Bridle-smith Gate for Chandlers Lane and Bottle Lane. As regards a name to that part, Hencross Street assists in filling up a blank which had formerly been noticeable, but I do not observe a reference to it by Deering in his history, or by any later writer. Hencross Street of 1641 is termed Sadler Gate by Thoroton in 1677, and when alluding to it about 1748, on page 13, Deering says, " Sadler Gate, now called High Street."

I propose to give some attention to the line of way now entitled Clumber Street, the old name for which, with various modes of spelling, was Cow Lane. In the Records, vol. i., page 431, it is remarked:—"Cowlane . . . altered in 1812 to Clumber Street." This might have been a mere change of name, and no doubt is accurate, still it is but a portion of the truth, for the most important cause of the change is unnoticed. At the date referred to it was (especially at its southern end) a very constricted thoroughfare, barely wide enough for a vehicle to pass through. As regards the large piece of land included between Broad Lane on the east and Cow Lane on the west, one hundred and twelve years since, much the greater portion unbuilt upon was owned by Mr. George de Ligne Gregory and the Duke of Newcastle.

About the close of the 18th century, or beginning of the 19th, Mr. Gregory commenced selling his portion, and at an election in 1806 various voters named Broad Lane Paddock (a part of his old land) as the place of their residence. Probably this selling had some influence with the Duke of Newcastle, for during 1812, or a little earlier, he also made arrangements for the sale, without interfering with the old buildings, of most of the land north of Thurland Hall and reaching to Parliament Street.

Under the conditions named it will be noticed that practically there was only a back road to all parts of the vacant ground, but even there Parliament or Middle Row, which then existed in the middle of the street, left but a narrow passage for two thirds the width of the land in that part. This is fully shown on my unique plan of Nottingham. To obviate these difficulties it was essential if possible, to arrange for some other and better mode of approaching the ground, and this was done by an arrangement between the Corporation and the Duke, the latter, in addition to other matters, giving sufficient land on the eastern side of Cow Lane to make it in width what we now find it as Clumber Street.

Sixteen feet are said to have been added, but if so this must have been the average, for Cow Lane was wider at the northern than the southern end. My unique plan, which was brought out twelve years before this change occurred, shows that a little more than two-thirds only on the eastern side was built upon, and this part must all have been demolished to allow of the enlargement, the land for which was all taken from that side. With the much improved means of access, and the formation of Lincoln Street, and two other streets from it to Parliament Street, the land was very considerably increased in value, made eligible for building, and in a moderate time was built upon. Clumber Street has since, in public estimation, occupied a good place as regards business, but would have been much more increased in value if twice sixteen feet had been added to its width.

As a roadway Cow Lane was an old, and somewhat noted one. I find Coulane and Koulane referred to in the Borough Records, vol. i., page 368 ; the first in 1296, and the latter in 1298. In 1371-1379, vol. i., page 201, it is entitled Couhlane, and in 1446 Kowlane. This was one of the two main entrances into the town having a bar or gateway; its ordinary name being Cowlane Bar, but sometimes termed the North Bar. This was in or part of the town wall, which ran down Backside, now Parliament Street, and was opposite the upper end of Cow Lane (Clumber Street).

Broad Lane, now Broad Street, will next be noticed. As a designation it is not a very ancient one, for it dates back, from what may be observed in the Records, but little more than three centuries. In vol. iv., page 312, it is alluded to in the year 1613. There is not much to associate it with the general history of Nottingham, but something may be said as regards its connection with the ground of which it is the eastern and Cow Lane the western boundary. Its change of title from "Lane" to "Street" occurred at the same time as the change in Cow Lane (1812).

Respecting this side of the land, Mr. George de Ligne Gregory, as before alluded to, began to arrange for its sale about 110 years since, and one of his first acts was to form George Street, named after himself, which running northwards divided the ground into two parts. He also formed a connection with it and Broad Street by making Lenton Street; and Lincoln Street, when afterwards formed, was continued to George Street, and thus probably passed over forty yards or more of Mr. Gregory's land.

The portion near the street was termed Broad Lane Paddock by persons when voting, for many years after, and some used the old street name until my time, for in my young days I remember hearing a number of old people continue to term it Broad Lane, but specially one old lady, who died in 1874, aged ninety-four, who always called it and other streets by their old titles. Therefore, it is singularly inappropriate to myself, and a few others, to be told in connection with this matter, as in the Records, vol. iv., page 431—"Broad Lane . . . Broad Street, still called Broad Lane by Deering." Deering died (see Date Book) in February 1749, and the old lady, who always termed it Broad Lane, died 125 years later; but that was also the official and acknowledged title for sixty-three years after Deering's death. This is another of the old Nottingham names which died hard.

The next avenue to be considered is the one now known as Parliament Street, and previously as Backside, a designation no doubt used nearly 400 years ago. The first reference I have observed to it is in the Borough Records, vol. iv., page 162 (1575), where the Mickletorn jury say: "We present Thomas Abate for laying manure by the malt milne on the Backsid (fined) VI d." Deering's plan of Nottingham shows that Back Side reached from Chapel Bar to Broad Lane, otherwise Broad Street. On page 386 "the backsyde of Thurland House" is alluded to, but it merely means the part where, at that date (1624), the ground at the back abutted upon what is now termed Parliament Street.

Under this road, for most of its length, the lower part of the old wall of the town runs, which at various times and places has been exposed to view (1850 to 1900). This roadway, when considered from its central position is, I believe, the widest in Nottingham, and has therefore much facilitated the arrangement for tramways. Luckily, and about twenty-five years since, the row of shops and houses, once in the middle of Lower Parliament Street, and the western end of which was in a line with the eastern side of Clumber Street, was, to the great convenience of the town, cleared away. It was called Parliament Row, but formerly Middle Row, and the cost of compensation and removal was, I understood, about £20,000.

Fortunately, with the aid of the Borough Records, I am enabled to give information respecting this strip of land at the period. It was very unwisely alienated, as circumstances afterwards proved, by the town authorities. See vol. iv., page 393, January 26th, 1624-5, extracted from the Council Minutes, namely:—"Thomas Jackson. —This companie are agreed that Thomas Jackson shall haue the ground on the backsyde vpon the town wall, nowe builded on, in fee symple to him and to his heires for ever for VI li. XIII s. IIII d." This is £6 13s. 4d., but would probably be equivalent to sixty or seventy pounds in these times, yet not comparable with what it was afterwards necessary to pay in order to once more obtain possession of this small plot.

Throsby in his history, in vol. ii. (1797), pages 136-37, gives a peculiar account of Backside as regards its change of name. He says, "One Rowe, an inhabitant, a man of some property, but a little deranged in his mind, offered himself as a candidate at an election to serve in Parliament, some few years since, in one of his mad fits. He treated his companions, the lower orders of the electors, with ale, purl, and sometimes rhubarb, which he strongly recommended to all, as an excellent thing for the constitution. He, not liking the name of the place he lived in, 'The Back Side,' and always thinking of the dignity he coveted, was at the expense of placing boards at some of the conspicuous corners of the passages, on which was written 'Parliament Street,' whence he was to pass to his seat in Westminster Hall. Some of these boards are still remaining; the man is sunk into the grave, but the street has effectually got a name, perhaps for ages."

In the Records, vol. iv., page 433, it says, "Backside . . . Parliament Street, which was known as Backside in Deering's time." This is certainly true, but not all the truth, for while writing I have by me an old book of account dated 1773, and "Backside" is therein referred to on many occasions, and judging also from other sources of information, I have no doubt that it retained its old name until 1780, or a little later, but Deering died in 1749.